TED演讲:双语能力对大脑的益处惊人!_励志演讲
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TED演讲:双语能力对大脑的益处惊人!

  ¿Hablas español? Parlez-vous français? ni hui shuo zhong wen ma? If you answered “si”,”oui” or ”hui” and you are watching this in English, chances are you belong to the world bilingual and multilingual majority. And besides having an easier time traveling, or watching movies without subtitles, knowing two or more languages means that your brain may actually look and work differently than those of your monolingual friends. So what does it really mean to know a language?

  你会说中文吗?如果你能回答“si”、“oui”或者“是的”,而且能看懂这个英文短片,那么你就跟世界上很多人一样、具备双语能力或是多语能力。除了旅游时沟通比较方便、看电影不需要字幕这些好处之外,通晓两种或者三种以上的语言,意味着你的大脑在结构上或运作上与你那些单一语言的朋友有着明显的不同。所以到底什么才能算通晓一门语言呢?

  Language ability is typically measured in two active parts, speaking and writing, and two passive parts, listening and reading. While a balanced bilingual has near equal abilities across the board in two languages, most bilinguals around the world know and use their languages in vary proportions. And depending on their situation and how they acquired each language, they can be classified into three general types.

  衡量语言能力,主要包含两个主动部分——说和写,和两个被动部分——听和读。虽然一个出色的双语者对于两种语言都有着相近的使用能力,但是大多数的双语者对两个语种的认知和使用能力是有差异的。根据个人所处的环境以及他们具体学语言的方法,双语者通常可以分成三类。

  For example, let’s take Gabriella, whose family immigrates to the US from Peru when she was two-years old. As a compound bilingual, Gabriella develops two linguistic codes simultaneously, with a single set of concepts, learning both English and Spanish as she begins to process the world around her. Her teenage brother, on the other hand, might be a coordinate bilingual, working with two sets of concepts, learning English in school, while continuing to speak Spanish at home and with friends.

  举个例子来说,Gabriella在两岁时跟着家人由秘鲁移民到美国。她属于复合型双语者,Gabriella在刚接触这个世界时就同时学英语和西班牙语,所以给她一个概念、她的大脑就能同时唤起两种语言信号。她有一个十几岁的哥哥,则属于协调型双语使用者,他运用两种不同的概念,一方面在学校学习英语,另一方面用西班牙语和家人、朋友交流。

  Finally, Gabriella’s parents are likely to be subordinate bilinguals who learned a secondary language by filtering it through their primary language.

  最后,Gabriella的父母,则属于从属型双语者。当他们学习外语(英语)时,需要通过母语进行翻译再进行学习。

  

TED演讲:双语能力对大脑的益处惊人!

  Because all types of bilingual people can become fully proficient in a language regardless of accent and pronunciation, the difference may not be apparent to be a casual observer. But recent advances in imaging technology have given neurolinguists a glimpse into how specific aspects of language learning affect the bilingual brain.

  如果不考虑口音和发音问题,这三种类型的双语者至少都算能精通一门语言。因此,一般人很难发现这三种类型的差异。然而现在,由于大脑成像技术不断进步,神经语言学家能够知道语言学习对双语使用者的大脑产生什么样的影响。

  It’s well known that the brain’s left hemisphere is more dominant and analytical in logical processes, while the right hemisphere is more active in emotional and social ones, though this is a matter of degree, not an absolute split.

  大家都知道,大脑的左半球是掌管数据和逻辑分析的,而大脑的右半球则掌管情感与社交,但这并不是绝对的、只是比例多少的问题。

  

TED演讲:双语能力对大脑的益处惊人!

  The fact that language involves both types of functions while lateralization develops gradually with age, has lead to the critical period hypothesis. According to this theory, children learn languages more easilybecause the plasticity of their developing brains let them use both hemispheres in language acquisition, while in most adults, language is lateralized to one hemisphere, usually the left.

  语言同时包括了左脑和右脑的功能,而随着年龄的增长,大脑的功能会逐渐侧重其中的一边,语言学习的关键时期假说就是由这个事实引申出来的。根据这个理论,儿童学习语言更容易,是因为他们的大脑仍在发展、可塑性更强,他们可以同时调用左右两边大脑的机能来学习语言;然而多数成年人只通过大脑的一边(通常是左脑)学习语言。

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